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Darkness Within: An Overview of Achebe’s Critique of Heart of Darkness


Chinua Achebe, author of Things Fall Apart, demolishes the premise of Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness, proclaiming that the latter is a “thoroughgoing racist.” (Achebe 1789) In his essay, “An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad’s Heart of Darkness,” Achebe violently criticizes the European perception of Africa and how it …

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James Joyce’s Eveline, in Dubliners: A Suffocating City


The short story Eveline in James Joyce’s collection of short stories, Dubliners, is a representation of Dublin’s asphyxiation of its people. The short story’s protagonist, Eveline, is trapped in Dublin by moral and familial obligations. She is paralyzed in a state of indecisiveness and fear of the unknown. The short …

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Justine, the Alexandria Quartet by Lawrence Durrell: An Interpretation of a Scent


Written in retrospect, Lawrence Durrell’s Justine (first volume in his tetralogy, The Alexandria Quartet) is an attempt on part of Darley, the narrator, to be reconciled with Alexandria, the city that transfigured his life. During his stay in Alexandria, Darley is constantly torn between his love for Melissa and Justine. He associates …

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In an Antique Land by Amitav Ghosh: A Traveller’s Tale


Travel writing is a literary genre that one might look upon with a degrading attitude; a Darwinian approach of the sort would be enough to send the branch of writing straight down to the bottom of the pyramid of genres, or as seventeenth century’s European academics would put it, the …

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The Dilemma Within Wuthering Heights: A Freudian Perspective


Wuthering Heights is a novel rife with opposing elements, from the constantly present juxtaposition between the natural and civilized realms to the contradictory dispositions of such characters as Heathcliff and Edgar Linton. Similarly, the father of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, viewed the human psyche as another landscape of conflicting drives and …

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Frederick Douglass: How Slavery Affected Both Slaves and Slaveholders


In Frederick Douglass’s account of his transformation from a slave to a free man, he reveals, through instances from his own life and that of others, the dehumanization that accompanies the institution of slavery. He recounts how, from the very first moments of childhood, a slave is regarded by the white …

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The Castle of Otranto: The First Fort in Gothic Literature


In 1764, the son and heir of a successful politician, Horace Walpole, launched his and humanity’s first attempt at Gothic fiction with his remarkable novel, The Castle of Otranto. Due to several elements that are present throughout the book, it is widely considered to be the initiating spark of a …

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